Competition is already fierce among Iranian-owned hard discounters.
Sector consolidates in 'M&A frenzy' sparked by regulatory changes.
Kazakhstan should not count on traditional economic growth drivers to rescue its struggling oil-based economy, but must carry out structural reforms to compete with regional rival Uzbekistan.
While the sovereign issue did help Kazakh corporate bonds already in circulation in London and elsewhere, its impact on new corporate bond issuance was limited due to the poor domestic and global economic climate.
Fintech start-ups are flourishing across Central and Eastern Europe, from Russia to Turkey, though Poland is probably the furthest ahead in establishing itself as the most important regional hub.
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