The importance of religious faith among Russians has grown significantly since the collapse of the Soviet Union, a poll by Moscow-based VCIOM has found.
The most notable change in opinion between 1991 and 2016 was an increase in the belief in predetermination. In 1991 only 25% of Russians polled said that their life path was predetermined by God, nearly doubling to 48% in 2016, as the first bneChart shows.
Worryingly, nearly six in 10 Russians believe that anti-religious media should be illegal – a figure that has remained unchanged since the poll was first conducted back in 1991. This figure is at odds with the rest of the early poll data, which found that outright belief in divine phenomena was lower in the Soviet era than it is now.
As the second bneChart shows, only 32% of those polled in 1991 believed in miracles, growing to 50% in 2016. Belief in the afterlife grew from 33% in 1991 to 46% this year. Belief in both the devil and in hell grew to 40% in 2016, from 25% and 24% in 1991, respectively.